Electricity refers to the presence of and movement of charged particles, while magnetism is concerned with the force that magnets exert when they attract or repel each other. Curious about the relationship between electricity and magnetism? Well, electric and magnetic forces are non-contact forces which means they don’t need to touch each other. A moving magnet can make electrical charges move, as well as cause an electrical current which in turn causes magnetism. See what I mean? Play this physical science game to understand the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
The Connection Between Electricity and Magnetism
What is the connection between Electricity and Magnetism? Electricity is caused by the motion of electrons. Protons and electrons are particles that carry positive and negative charges, respectively. The objects we see around us contain billions of atoms, and each atom contains many protons and electrons. Protons are concentrated in a small space called a nucleus, and the electrons are in motion outside the nucleus in the form of orbitals. The protons cannot leave the nucleus, and the electrons are responsible for causing electricity.
In simple terms, electricity and magnetism are forces of nature that interact with each other. The science behind them is based on the interaction between electrically charged particles and the magnetic field they are surrounded by. The two forces are one of the four fundamental interactions in the universe. Gravity and the "weak" and "strong" forces that hold atomic nuclei together are the other three forces. Unlike gravity, the two forces are governed by the same principles.
One of the most fascinating facts about electricity and magnetism is Coulomb's law. The theory states that electric charges transfer energy from one place to another by the same amount. In other words, the more electrical charges a body has, the stronger its magnetic field is. To explain this law, consider the example of two +1.00 Coulomb charges held 1.00 meters apart. The force of repulsion between them is 9 billion Newtons. That's a huge amount of force, and is equivalent to the weight of 2000 jetliners!
Motion of electric charges
The motion of electric charges in magnetism can be seen in several different ways. The helical motion of charged particles in a magnetic field is often compared to a wave traveling from thin string to a hard wall. In addition to this, the particles can be trapped inside a magnetic bottle. During this process, the force applied on them changes. A powerful magnetic field slows the motion of the charged particles.
The basic principles of electric and magnetic fields are based on the concept of electromagnetic waves (EM). These are a type of energy transfer that moves through an area at a certain speed. The EM field can be described using its wavelength and frequency range. Different combinations of these parameters create different forms of energy. The energy contained in an EM field varies with the size of the area and the time interval in which it travels.
Magnetic field lines
Electrical and magnetic forces can be visualized using field lines. The electric field line induces and extinguishes a charge. A magnetic field line produces a magnetic field and is perpendicular to the electric field. The intensity of the magnetic field is given by the symbol B or E. Field lines are measured in two and three-dimensions. There are a number of ways to visualize these forces and their effects.