Science Game about the Earth’s Mantle, Crust and Core

Learn more about the Earth’s mantle, core and crust with this science game.

The Earth's Mantle
The majority of Earth's interior is made up of the mantle. Sarah Lambart, University of Utah geologist, has revealed that the mantle is a network of reservoirs that create new ocean crust. The first crystallizations of minerals were visible when the geologist dug through the ocean crust. What is the mantle made from? During crystallization, a variety of minerals are created. These minerals are then carried into the mantle. The mantle ridge connects the ocean floor and the mid-ocean islands ridges.

Layers
Mantle of the earth is composed of many layers. Mantle is a liquid, which is not completely solid. It is instead constantly moving, with general convective circulation which brings warm material upwards and cool material downwards. This circulation is what is believed to drive plate-tectonics within the crust. This article will cover some of the mantle layers.
The Earth's mantle, a thick semi-solid layer that lies between the core of the Earth and its thin outer layer, called the crust, is thicker than the core. It covers 84% of Earth's volume and is approximately 2900 km thick. It formed almost twice as thick as the crust 4.5 billion years ago. It is composed of molten material that looks similar to the white of an egg. However, it contains iron-nickel alloys.

Composition
Scientists have spent a lot of money and time studying the Earth's mantle composition. Although large differences have been observed in the compositions of mantle Isotopes, this does not necessarily mean heterogeneity. It is possible that the mantle may be heterogeneous. There are many explanations for this fact. Let's take a look at some.
Different rock sections make up the Earth's mantle. It's difficult to access so scientists have relied on lava eruptions from the ocean floor to get an idea of its composition. Researchers have discovered a new theory regarding the mantle's composition and its influence on Earth's tectonic plates.

Temperature
T P is the temperature of the Earth's core (the temperature of the mantle) and it provides a useful measure of temperature variation. The mantle's temperature would be much higher than the surface temperature if it were liquid. The Earth's mantle, however, is not liquid below this boundary. This discovery has implications for the evolution and fate of the planets. This article will discuss this theory and explain how it may be helpful in understanding the mantle's structure and dynamics.
The mantle temperature plays a significant role in shaping the surface of Earth. It is not possible to measure the temperature of Earth's mantle because it lies hundreds of kilometers or even tens kilometres below the surface. Scientists use indirect methods to determine the mantle temperature, using lava chemistry. However, scientists are not able to determine the temperature of Earth’s mantle and disagree about how it changes.

Viscosity
Geophysicists discovered a new phenomenon within the Earth's crust: the viscosity of the mantle increases below the 660-kilometer border. The mantle acts as geologic molasses by slowing the movement of tectonic plates, and allowing for the rise of hot rock plumes that fuel volcanoes. Although the exact mechanism for this increase in viscosity remains a mystery, it should allow geologists to better understand how heat moves through the Earth's interior.
One physical mechanism cannot explain the viscosity increase below the transition zone's base. The increase in viscosity below the base of the transition zone is not due to any mantle phase change. Scientists have not been able to identify a cause for the increase in viscosity. However, there are several possible explanations. The Model 160 and 172 Inversions indicate a decrease of viscosity at lower levels, while the reverse is true at deeper levels.

Rheology
There have been many theoretical models of the rheology and distribution of Earth's mantles. The four major rheological elements of the universal rheological model are elasticity, diffusion and high temperature dislocation. This article presents a model for the high temperature dislocation element. It is based on a combination power-law non Newtonian fluid models as well as linear hereditary Andrade models. These models describe the motion of rigid bodies in an asymmetrical space.
Major advances were made in understanding the atomistic mechanism of plastic deformation in solids in the first half century. The theoretical framework that allowed for the application of laboratory findings to the Earth's interior was much in place by the end of the 1960s. From the mid-1960s through the early 1970s, significant advances were made in studying rheological properties such as the weakening water. These studies also revealed a nonlinear effect in deformation-induced lattice preferred orientation.

Igneous provinces
These are areas of Earth's mantle with a unique geological history. These regions can be found all over the world, from the Ethiopian plateau down to the Siberian Traps. Although some of these areas may contain rare examples of lava flows, the main focus of the article is the lowest mantle plume.
The North Atlantic Igneous Province, (NAIP), is located in the northeast Atlantic. It connects to the Iceland plume. In the mantle, igneous provinces dominated the rift basins that formed between the Late Paleozoic-Paleocene periods. The Ontong Java Nui is one of these igneous provinces. It erupted at the age of 123 Ma. Its volcanic activity occurred at the same time as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum.

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