The brain is responsible for controlling the functions in the body that are needed for an organism to continue living. It also allows humans to think, learn and use mathematics and language, and possess emotions, memory, and imagination.
As an organ, the brain is made of over 100 billion nerve cells or neurons. The brain is divided into different parts – the largest of which is called the cerebrum. The cerebrum is split into two hemispheres – the right and left – at the corpus callosum. It is specialized into many parts, called lobes, which specialize in a variety of functions from controlling personality and body movement to processing senses such as sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste into information.
The other parts of the brain include the cerebellum and brain stem. Located under the back part of the cerebrum, the cerebellum helps the muscles work together, corrects posture, and maintains balance as one moves around.
On the other hand, the brain stem connects the first two parts to the spinal cord, transmitting commands from the brain to the whole body. The brain stem also handles functions we usually do unconsciously, such as breathing, digesting food, heart activity, as well as maintains proper sleep cycles and body temperature.
You can take this diagram of the brain quiz online to review the different parts of the brain and develop your understanding of its functions and structure.