All life on Earth is made of cells – plants are no exception. Plant cells, like animal cells, are very tiny, and you share many familiar organelles, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochrondia, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum. However, plant cells also have a few different structures that aren’t found in animal cells.
Plant cells are surrounded by a tough outer layer called the cell wall, which keeps plants strong, sturdy and upright even against wind, rain, and trampling animals. Underneath the cell wall is the cell membrane separating the cytoplasm and organelles further inside.
One of the organelles only found in plant cells is the vacuole, a large bubble-like sac that stores nutrients and water for the cell to live. It also keeps the cell firm against pressure.
Another organelle that is unique to plants is the chloroplast. To perform photosynthesis, a plant harvests light energy from the Sun with the help of chlorophyll, a green substance made by the chloroplast. Chloroplasts produce food from water and CO2, and release oxygen as a waste product.
The parts of a plant cell diagram quiz found here can build your knowledge of a plant cell’s different parts and structures, as well as relate each part to their corresponding roles and functions to the plant.