The neuron, or nerve cell, is the most basic unit that composes the brain. It is a cell specialized to transmit electrical and chemical signals to other cells. These signals allow the brain to control and communicate with the rest of the body.
Approximately 80 billion neurons in the nervous system send and receive signals all the time. As a whole, they enable several bodily and mental processes, from digestion and breathing to thought, emotion, and consciousness.
The structure of the neuron is divided into three main parts – the dendrite, cell body or soma, and axon.
The dendrites branch out of the cell body and receives signals from the ends of other neurons. These signals travel along a tube called an axon, which is coated with a myelin sheath enabling them to travel faster to the axon terminals at the end.
Signals cross from the axon terminals of one neuron to the dendrites of another cell through a gap called the synapse.
The neuron diagram labelling quiz prepared here can serve as a helpful study aid for learning the various parts and functions of the nerve cell and how they work together in contributing to the function of the nervous system.